Unfortunately, no. Both Social Security Disability Benefits and Supplemental Security Income require you to meet significant medical criteria before becoming eligible for benefits. However, the amount of benefits is the same for someone who just barely qualified as it would be if that person became terminally ill. Simply put, disability benefits are all or nothing.
All this said, there is one small exception that may possibly apply. If you have been receiving Supplemental Security Income benefits and your vision worsens it may allow you to requalify for disability insurance benefits. For more on SSDI special rules for blindness, see this previous post.