No. For the Social Security Administration there is no such thing as “temporary” disability.
However, there is a practice at the hearings level that has the practical effect of granting temporary benefits to a claimant. These types of cases are called “closed period” cases. This creates a lot of confusion in the public as closed period awards are relatively common at the Hearings level. Yet, if you were to ask the Social Security staff if you could be eligible for temporary benefits, they would tell you that no such claim exists.